Dr. S. S. VERMA; Department of Physics, S.L.I.E.T., Longowal; Distt.-Sangrur (Punjab)-148 106
Good health is all that every one of us aspires for at the first place and then feel concerned about protecting our family from diseases and most of them come from water borne diseases (80% of the diseases). Water is more important than food or fuel. The world’s population is increasing while the worlds’ water supply is not. A water purifier is thus the recommended solution. Use of the best water purifiers designed with the latest technologies ensures a healthy life. Modern water purifiers are true epitomes of innovation and advanced technology. Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, materials, and biological contaminants from contaminated water and making it worth for drinking and cleaning purposes. The goal and level of any water purification process is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Most water is purified for human consumption (drinking water) but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes, including meeting the requirements of medical, pharmacology, chemical and industrial applications. In general the methods used for water purification include physical processes such as filtration and sedimentation, biological processes such as slow sand filters or activated sludge, chemical processes such as flocculation and chlorination and the use of electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet light.
The purification process of water may reduce the concentration of particulate matter including suspended particles, parasites, bacteria, algae, viruses, fungi; and a range of dissolved and particulate material derived from the surfaces that water may have made contact with after falling as rain. The standards for drinking water quality although are typically set by governments or by international standards but generally decided by use on his own in view of resources available to him. These standards will typically set minimum and maximum concentrations of contaminants for the use that is to be made of the water. It is not possible to tell whether water is of an appropriate quality by visual examination. Simple procedures such as boiling or the use of a household activated carbon filter are not sufficient for treating all the possible contaminants that may be present in water from an unknown source. Even natural spring water – considered safe for all practical purposes in the 19th century – must now be tested before determining what kind of treatment, if any, is needed. Chemical analysis, while expensive, is the only way to obtain the information necessary for deciding on the appropriate method of purification.
According to a 2007 world health organization (WHO) report, 1.1 billion people lack access to an improved drinking water supply, 88% of the 4 billion annual cases of diarrheal disease are attributed to unsafe water and inadequate sanitation and hygiene, and 1.8 million people die from diarrheal diseases each year. The WHO estimates that 94% of these diarrheal cases are preventable through modifications to the environment, including access to safe water. Simple techniques for treating water at home, such as chlorination, filters, and solar disinfection, and storing it in safe containers could save a huge number of lives each year. Reducing deaths from waterborne diseases is a major public health goal in developing countries. With the technological development, easy and cost water purification devices are very much available in the market. Before purchasing such any drinking water device we have to determine which contaminants we want to remove, are these contaminants in water, the degree of “purity” of the water etc. as there is no such a device or technology that “does all”. The most popular and economical method is activated carbon (AC) and other technologies are; reverse osmosis (RO), ultraviolet radiation (UV), ion exchange (IEX) and distillation or demineralization (DI).
Reverse osmosis (RO) is a membrane filtration process separating dissolved salts from a water stream. In RO, not only are insoluble particles rejected by the membrane but also molecules and ions in solution. Concentration of ions near the membrane sets up ‘polarization’ phenomena which results in an increase in the osmotic pressure of the solution to be treated, sometimes followed by precipitation. The continuing flow of input water under high pressure (>200 psi) flushes the membrane, which removes the ion concentrations and/or precipitates. RO systems are not normally “water efficient” and wastewater rejected by the system may be significant. Purchase and installation costs can be significant. RO membrane are notoriously prone to scale and bacterial build-ups and ruptures. Slime-forming bacteria can cause rapid deterioration of performance. High end laboratory RO systems reject high degree of organic and inorganic compounds producing high quality pharmaceutical grade water. To achieve this, producers pre-treat the water using various pre-treatment methods such as passing through pre-filters, ion exchange resin beds etc. Under right pressure (>200 psi.) and temperature the pre-treated water is then pumped through two RO membranes connected in series (double pass) rejecting dissolved compounds in molecular and ionic state. These systems have to be constantly maintained and monitored by trained personnel using sophisticated equipment. Moreover, RO water lacks minerals and oxygen, hence the “flat”, “stale” taste when used for drinking.
Ultraviolet systems (UV) expose supply water to intense ultraviolet radiation, which kill pathogenic bacteria (cholera, typhoid, salmonella, dysenteriae, etc.), virus however is not effective against cysts. Since UV is not a physical filter, suspended particles (or turbidity) in the water could “shade” bacteria from the direct rays from the UV source “live” bacteria and virus could pass through the system. For this reason a good UV systems have ceramic cartridge as a pre and final filter. The following factors can reduce the UV performance:
- Iron and hardness, which build up on the quartz sleeve is a process industry known as “fouling”.
- Iron, decayed organic matters, tannins and any UV energy absorptive material commonly found in tap water.
Ultraviolet by itself, does not remove any particulate matter or turbidity. Turbidity refers to the concentration of un-dissolved, suspended particles present in a liquid measured in Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU). It is important to note that turbidity is a measure of sample clarity and not colour. Water with cloudy or opaque appearance will have high turbidity, while water that is clear or translucent will have low turbidity. High turbidity value is caused by particles such as silt, clay, microorganisms, and organic matter. By definition, turbidity is not a direct measure of these particles but rather a measure of how these particles scatter light. Turbidity is a very complex analytical measurement which can be affected by many factors. Some are inherent in the instrument’s design such as angle of detection, light beam aperture, incident beam wavelength and colour sensitivity of the photocell. However, there are other factors such as stray light, air bubbles and care of vial, which can be prevented through proper care of equipment and accessories. It does not also remove volatile organic compounds such as pesticides or insecticides, therefore, purchase, installation, operating and maintenance costs should be considered before selecting UV as a drinking water treatment system.
Distillation or demineralization is usually an effective method of preparing safe drinking water. However, carry-over’s of volatile organic compounds (herbicides and/or pesticides) may be an issue since they may be evaporated and re-condensed with the water. Like RO, distilled water is very acidic and should be stored in glass container in order to prevent leaching (recontamination). Since water is virtually dematerialized it is often called “starving”, “thirsty” or “hungry” water. Like RO, distilled water lacks minerals and oxygen, hence the “flat”, “stale” taste when used for drinking. Distilled water is mainly used for industrial processes such as electronic circuit boards etching and rinsing, photographic’s and other applications. In most cases, pre-filtration, including a ceramic filter element, will improve the effectiveness of a distillation system by improving the quality of supply water.
Companies have developed water purifiers equipped with E-boiling +, UV+, RO+, UF+ and SMP+ technologies that can purify any kind of water. Auto selects the best purification technology to purify your water. SMP+ ensures that the total dissolved solids (TDS) level in water is constant and gives the triple benefit of sweetness, minerals and purity. Thus, giving water that is perfectly balanced with the right amount of minerals and salts. The revolutionary new RO+UV water purifier with an advanced 6-stage purification process, ensures that the water is absolutely pure and absolutely. First, its RO purification technology removes the excess TDS, pesticides and other impurities from water before it is stored; making water sweet then its UV technology automatically purifies the water periodically to prevent recontamination, and keep it pure and fresh, always water.
For years membranes and ion exchange have been used to lower total dissolved solids (TDS) from water and wastewater, none of which is economical, practical or efficient as TDS levels increase beyond 35,000 PPM. Availability of technology for low power consumption and powerful to purify the primary pollutants is not available in a single technology platform. In many parts of the world safe fresh water is not available to support the population, or that water will be the major economic, environmental, and political issue in the next century yet, this entire field is characterized by mature technology with manufacturers that refuse to embrace a disruptive technology. So the product cycles are measured in decades by the consumer. But a new technology has been developed such as the electronic water purification (EWP) over the last 10 years that has low operating costs, low rejection waste water, low capital, no chemicals, small footprint and is now has moved from laboratory scale to large commercial sizes. This technology will challenge traditional technologies in water purification.
The electronic water purification (EWP) enables anybody anywhere to convert their readily available but polluted non salty water to potable standard at a fraction of the cost of bottled water. This water purification system is manufactured all over the world with over 1000 units already sold. The electronic water purifier system is one of the top devices available on the market to ensure that the water that we use in business, industry and at home is safe to use. Electronic water purification technology uses electro-magnetism to rid water of its impurities. The science behind the system is relatively straight forward meaning that the system is simple to operate and its running costs are low. Electronic water purification method works by applying DC power to carbon based electrodes which are layered into a casing and the application of this power causes the electrodes to be charged with opposing polarities. This opposing polarity attracts minerals which are in the water, causing them to be removed from the water. The minerals are then absorbed on the surface of the electrode which causes all minerals and impurities to be removed, leaving behind nothing but pure water. When these contaminants do build up too much then they are simply dumped by reversing the polarity of the charge and then flush away by a valve system.
Relatively cheap to purchase, install and maintain the electronic water purifier is convenient and affordable to use just about whenever needed whereas other systems can be expensive and complicated. Because the electronic water purifier does not rely on high pressures to work, the power requirements are lower than other systems making it more efficient and it can even be used with a solar power system. A high percentage of water is recovered, again making the system more efficient than many of its water purification technologies. The electronic water purifier requires no chemicals to operate, making or easy and safe to use. Compact and easy to use, the Prestige is easy to store and requires little maintenance. Developed over 10 years, the system has been proven and is being used throughout the world. It has already proven valuable in providing drinking water to people in developing countries.
Electronic water purifier can easily remove more contaminants from water than any single technology like: total dissolved solids (TDS), lead, nitrates, metals, perchlorate, sodium chloride, sulphates, calcium and arsenic etc. Thus, able to purify water of contaminants that are potentially harmful, the electronic water purifier can be used to provide safe and clean drinking water for homes and businesses as well as softening water for use in and around the household. Electronic water purifier can also be used in a variety of commercial, industrial and large industry settings. Aside from the huge benefits of using green technology, the equipment is also extremely cost effective. Here are some of the commercial uses: avoid contaminant buildup, desalination, large water purification capacity, swimming pools, agriculture, water recycling, easy to maintain, prestige system. Electronic water purifier has simple operation & low operating costs.